THE LAWS OF MANU

 
 
 

(excerpts with highlighted repetitions on the right)



 
 
 

Chapter II

33. The names of women should be easy to pronounce, not imply anything
 dreadful, possess a plain meaning, be pleasing and auspicious, end in long 
 vowels, and contain a word of benediction.

213. It is the nature of women to seduce men in this (world); for that 
  reason the wise are never unguarded in (the company of) females. 
214. For women are able to lead astray in (this) world not only a fool,
  but even a learned man, and (to make) him a slave of desire and anger.
215. One should not sit in a lonely place with one's mother, sister, or daughter; 
  for the senses are powerful, and master even a learned man.

Chapter III

51. No father who knows (the law) must take even the smallest gratuity for his
  daughter; for a man who, through avarice, takes a gratuity, is a seller of his
  offspring.
52. But those (male) relations who, in their folly, live on the separate property 
  of women, (e.g. appropriate) the beasts of burden, carriages, and clothes of 
  women, commit sin and will sink into hell.

55. Women must be honoured and adorned by their fathers, brothers, 
  husbands and brothers-in-law, who desire (their own) welfare.
56. Where women are honoured, there the gods are pleased; but where they 
  are not honoured, no sacred rite yields rewards.
57. Where the female relations live in grief, the family soon wholly perishes;
  but that family where they are not unhappy ever prospers.
58. The houses on which female relations, not being duly honoured,
  pronounce a curse, perish completely, as if destroyed by magic.
59. Hence men who seek (their own) welfare, should always honour women 
  on holidays and festivals with (gifts of) ornaments, clothes, and (dainty) food.
60. In that family, where the husband is pleased with his wife and the wife 
  with her husband, happiness will assuredly be lasting.
61. For if the wife is not radiant with beauty, she will not attract her husband; 
  but if she has no attractions for him, no children will be born.
62. If the wife is radiant with beauty, the whole house is bright; but if she is
  destitute of beauty, all will appear dismal.


 
 
 
 

       It is the nature of women to seduce men in this (world); for that 
     reason the wise are never unguarded in (the company of) females.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

             (male) relations who, in their folly, live on the separate
                property of women .. commit sin and sink into hell
 

                        Women must be honoured and adorned
                           by their fathers, brothers, husbands..
 

                       Where the female relations live in grief, 
                                the family soon wholly perishes
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

            If the wife is radiant with beauty, the whole house is bright;
           but if she is destitute of beauty, all will appear dismal.
 

Chapter IV

205. A Brahmana must never eat (a dinner given) at a sacrifice that is offered
  by one who is not a Srotriya, by one who sacrifices for a multitude of men,
  by a woman, or by a eunuch.

217. Nor (the food given) by those who knowingly bear with paramours
  (of their wives), and by those who in all matters are ruled by women...
 

Chapter V

89. Libations of water shall not be offered to those who (neglect the prescribed 
  rites and may be said to) have been born in vain, to those born in consequence
  of an illegal mixture of the castes, to those who are ascetics (of heretical sects),
  and to those who have committed suicide ..
 90. To women who have joined a heretical sect, who through lust live (with 
  many men), who have caused an abortion, have killed their husbands, 
  or drink spirituous liquor.

146. Thus the rules of personal purification for men of all castes, and those for
  cleaning (inanimate) things, have been fully declared to you: hear now the 
  duties of women.
147. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be
  done independently, even in her own house.
148. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her 
  husband, when her lord is dead to her sons; a woman must never be 
  independent.
149. She must not seek to separate herself from her father, husband, or sons; by
  leaving them she would make both (her own and her husband's) families 
  contemptible.
150. She must always be cheerful, clever in (the management of her) household
  affairs, careful in cleaning her utensils, and economical in expenditure.
151. Him to whom her father may give her, or her brother with the father's
  permission, she shall obey as long as he lives, and when he is dead, she must
  not insult (his memory).
152. For the sake of procuring good fortune to (brides), the recitation of 
  benedictory texts (svastyayana), and the sacrifice to the Lord of creatures 
  (Pragapati) are used at weddings; (but) the betrothal (by the father or guardian)
  is the cause of (the husband's) dominion (over his wife).
153. The husband who wedded her with sacred texts, always gives happiness to
  his wife, both in season and out of season, in this world and in the next.
154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of 
  good qualities, (yet) a husband must be constantly worshipped as a god by a 
  faithful wife.
155. No sacrifice, no vow, no fast must be performed by women apart (from 
  their husbands); if a wife obeys her husband, she will for that (reason alone) be 
  exalted in heaven.
156. A faithful wife, who desires to dwell (after death) with her husband, must
  never do anything that might displease him who took her hand, whether he be
  alive or dead.
157. At her pleasure let her emaciate her body by (living on) pure flowers, roots,
  and fruit; but she must never even mention the name of another man after her
  husband has died.
158. Until death let her be patient (of hardships), self-controlled, and chaste, 
  and strive (to fulfill) that most excellent duty which (is prescribed) for wives 
  who have one husband only.
159. Many thousands of Brahmanas who were chaste from their youth, have
  gone to heaven without continuing their race.
160. A virtuous wife who after the death of her husband constantly remains 
  chaste, reaches heaven, though she have no son, just like those chaste men.
161. But a woman who from a desire to have offspring violates her duty towards
  her (deceased) husband, brings on herself disgrace in this world, and loses her 
  place with her husband (in heaven).

           A Brahmana must never eat (a dinner given) at a sacrifice 
                 that is offered by .. a woman .. Nor .. by those who in
                                  all matters are ruled by women
 
 
 
 
 
 

                  Libations of water shall not be offered to those ..
                   women who .. through lust live (with many men),
                                    who have caused an abortion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

                  In childhood a female must be subject to her father,
           in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons;
                                a woman must never be independent
 
 

       She must always be cheerful, clever in (the management of her) 
                     household affairs, careful in cleaning her utensils, 
                           and economical in expenditure
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

         Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere),
           or devoid of good qualities, (yet) a husband must be
                 constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife

                                   If a wife obeys her husband, 
              she will for that (reason alone) be exalted in heaven
 
 
 
 
 

   Until death let her be patient (of hardships), self-controlled, and chaste
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

162. Offspring begotten by another man is here not (considered lawful), nor
  (does offspring begotten) on another man's wife (belong to the begetter),
  nor is a second husband anywhere prescribed for virtuous women.
163. She who cohabits with a man of higher caste, forsaking her own husband
  who belongs to a lower one, will become contemptible in this world,
  and is called a remarried woman (parapurva).
164. By violating her duty towards her husband, a wife is disgraced in this world,
  (after death) she enters the womb of a jackal, and is tormented by diseases (the
  punishment of) her sin.
165. She who, controlling her thoughts, words, and deeds, never slights her lord,
  resides (after death) with her husband (in heaven), and is called a virtuous
  (wife).
166. In reward of such conduct, a female who controls her thoughts, speech,
  and actions, gains in this (life) highest renown, and in the next (world) a place
  near her husband.
167. A twice-born man, versed in the sacred law, shall burn a wife of equal 
  caste  who conducts herself thus and dies before him, with (the sacred fires
  used for) the Agnihotra, and with the sacrificial implements.
168. Having thus, at the funeral, given the sacred fires to his wife who dies
  before him, he may marry again, and again kindle (the fires).
169. (Living) according to the (preceding) rules, he must never neglect the five
  (great) sacrifices, and, having taken a wife, he must dwell in (his own) house 
  during the second period of his life.

Chapter VII

46. For a king who is attached to the vices springing from love of pleasure,
  loses his wealth and his virtue, but (he who is given) to those arising from anger,
  (loses) even his life.
47. Hunting, gambling, sleeping by day, censoriousness, (excess with) women,
  drunkenness, (an inordinate love for) dancing, singing, and music, and useless 
  travel are the tenfold set (of vices) springing from love of pleasure.
48. Tale-bearing, violence, treachery, envy, slandering, (unjust) seizure of 
  property, reviling, and assault are the eightfold set (of vices) produced by
  wrath.
49. That greediness which all wise men declare to be the root even of both these
  (sets), let him carefully conquer; both sets (of vices) are produced by that.
50. Drinking, dice, women, and hunting, these four 
  (which have been enumerated) in succession, he must know to be the most 
  pernicious in the set that springs from love of pleasure.

148. That king whose secret plans other people, (though) assembled
  (for the purpose), do not discover, (will) enjoy the whole earth, though he be
  poor in treasure.
149. At the time of consultation let him cause to be removed idiots, the dumb,
  the blind, and the deaf, animals, very aged men, women, barbarians, the sick,
  and those deficient in limbs.
150. (Such) despicable (persons), likewise animals, and particularly women 
  betray secret council; for that reason he must be careful with respect to them.
 


 
 
 

                         By violating her duty towards her husband, 
                                     a wife is disgraced in this world,
                         (after death) she enters the womb of a jackal,
           and is tormented by diseases (the punishment of) her sin.
   She who, controlling her thoughts, words, deeds, never slights her lord, 
                      resides (after death) with her husband (in heaven)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

               a king who is attached to the vices springing from love
                          of pleasure, loses his wealth and his virtue
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

                        particularly women betray secret council
 

Chapter VIII

27. The king shall protect the inherited (and other) property of a minor, until he
  has returned (from his teacher's house) or until he has passed his minority.
28. In like manner care must be taken of barren women, of those who have no 
  sons, of those whose family is extinct, of wives and widows faithful to their
  lords, and of women afflicted with diseases. 
29. A righteous king must punish like thieves those relatives who appropriate 
  the property of such females during their lifetime. 

68. Women should give evidence for women... 

70. On failure (of qualified witnesses, evidence) may be given (in such cases)
  by a woman, by an infant, by an aged man, by a pupil, by a relative, by a slave, 
  or by a hired servant.

77. One man who is free from covetousness may be (accepted as a) witness;
  but not even many pure women, because the understanding of females is apt
  to waver, nor even many other men, who are tainted with sin. 

89. (Saying), 'Whatever places (of torment) are assigned (by the sages) to the
  slayer of a Brahmana, to the murderer of women and children, to him who
  betrays a friend, and to an ungrateful man, those shall be thy (portion),
  if thou speakest falsely.

111. Let no wise man swear an oath falsely, even in a trifling matter; for he who 
  swears an oath falsely is lost in this (world) and after death. 
112. No crime, causing loss of caste, is committed by swearing (falsely) 
  to women, the objects of one's desire, at marriages, for the sake of fodder
  for a cow, or of fuel, and in (order to show) favour to a Brahmana. 

348. Twice-born men may take up arms when (they are) hindered (in the
  fulfilment of their duties, when destruction (threatens) the twice-born castes 
  (varna) in (evil) times, 
349. In their own defence, in a strife for the fees of officiating priests, and in
  order to protect women and Brahmanas; he who (under such circumstances)
  kills in the cause of right, commits no sin.

361. Let no man converse with the wives of others after he has been forbidden 
  (to do so); but he who converses (with them), in spite of a prohibition, shall 
  be fined one suvarna. 
362. This rule does not apply to the wives of actors and singers, nor (of) those
  who live on (the intrigues of) their own (wives); for such men send their wives 
  (to others) or, concealing themselves, allow them to hold criminal intercourse.
363. Yet he who secretly converses with such women, or with female slaves
  kept by one (master), and with female ascetics, shall be compelled to pay a 
  small fine.
364. He who violates an unwilling maiden shall instantly suffer corporal
  punishment; but a man who enjoys a willing maiden shall not suffer corporal 
  punishment, if (his caste be) the same...


 
 

            care must be taken of barren women, of those who have no
            sons, of those whose family is extinct, of wives and widows
           faithful to their lords, and of women afflicted with diseases.
            A righteous king must punish like thieves those relatives
                     who appropriate the property of such females

                         Women should give evidence for women ..

                 On failure (of qualified witnesses, evidence) may
                           be given (in such cases) by a woman
 

                    One man who is free from covetousness may be
             (accepted as a) witness; but not even many pure women,
               because the understanding of females is apt to waver
 
 
 
 
 

         Let no wise man swear an oath falsely, even in a trifling matter;
   for he who swears an oath falsely is lost in this (world) and after death.
           No crime, causing loss of caste, is committed by swearing
         (falsely) to women, the objects of one's desire, at marriages
 

                         Twice-born men may take up arms ..
 

                                      in order to protect women
 
 

                   Let no man converse with the wives of others after he
                   has been forbidden (to do so) .. this rule does not apply
                     to the wives of actors and singers, nor (of) those
                       who live on (the intrigues of) their own (wives)
 
 
 
 

                             He who violates an unwilling maiden 
                        shall instantly suffer corporal punishment
 

Chapter IX.

1. I will now propound the eternal laws for a husband and his wife who keep to
  the path of duty, whether they be united or separated.
2. Day and night woman must be kept in dependence by the males (of) their
  (families), and, if they attach themselves to sensual enjoyments, they must be
  kept under one's control.
3. Her father protects (her) in childhood, her husband protects (her) in youth, 
  and her sons protect (her) in old age; a woman is never fit for independence.
4. Reprehensible is the father who gives not (his daughter in marriage) at the 
  proper time; reprehensible is the husband who approaches not 
  (his wife in due season), and reprehensible is the son who does not protect 
  his mother after her husband has died. 
5. Women must particularly be guarded against evil inclinations, however trifling 
  (they may appear); for, if they are not guarded, they will bring sorrow on two
  families.
6. Considering that the highest duty of all castes, even weak husbands (must)
  strive to guard their wives.
7. He who carefully guards his wife, preserves (the purity of) his offspring,
  virtuous conduct, his family, himself, and his (means of acquiring) merit.
8. The husband, after conception by his wife, becomes an embryo and is born
  again of her; for that is the wifehood of a wife (gaya), that he is born (gayate)
  again by her.
9. As the male is to whom a wife cleaves, even so is the son whom she brings
  forth; let him therefore carefully guard his wife, in order to keep his offspring
  pure.
10. No man can completely guard women by force; but they can be guarded
  by the employment of the (following) expedients:
11. Let the (husband) employ his (wife) in the collection and expenditure of
  his wealth, in keeping (everything) clean, in (the fulfilment of) religious duties,
  and in looking after the household utensils.
12. Women, confined in the house under trustworthy and obedient servants, 
  are not (well) guarded; but those who of their own accord keep guard over 
  themselves, are well guarded.
13. Drinking (spirituous liquor), associating with wicked people, separation 
  from the husband, rambling abroad, sleeping (at unseasonable hours), and 
  dwelling in other men's houses, are the six causes of the ruin of women.
14. Women do not care for beauty, nor is their attention fixed on age; 
  (thinking), '(It  is enough that) he is a man,' they give themselves to the 
  handsome and to the ugly.
15. Through their passion for men, through their mutable temper, through their 
 natural heartlessness, they become disloyal towards their husbands, however
  carefully they may be guarded in this (world).
16. Knowing their disposition, which the Lord of creatures laid in them at the
  creation, to be such, (every) man should most strenuously exert himself to
  guard them.
17. (When creating them) Manu allotted to women (a love of their) bed, 
  (of their) seat and (of) ornament, impure desires, wrath, dishonesty,
  malice, and bad conduct.
18. For women no (sacramental) rite (is performed) with sacred texts, thus 
  the law is settled; women (who are) destitute of strength and destitute of 
  (the knowledge of) Vedic texts, (are as impure as) falsehood (itself), that
  is a fixed rule.
19. And to this effect many sacred texts are sung also in the Vedas, in order
  to (make) fully known the true disposition (of women); hear (now those 
  texts which refer to) the expiation of their (sins).
20. 'If my mother, going astray and unfaithful, conceived illicit desires, may
  my  father keep that seed from me,' that is the scriptural text.
21. If a woman thinks in her heart of anything that would pain her husband,
  the (above-mentioned text) is declared (to be a means for) completely
  removing such  infidelity.


 
 

                              Day and night woman must be kept
                                     in dependence by the males ..

                              a woman is never fit for independence

   Reprehensible is the father who gives not (his daughter in marriage)
     at the proper time; reprehensible is the husband who approaches
    not (his wife in due season), and reprehensible is the son who does
               not protect his mother after her husband has died.

        Women must particularly be guarded against evil inclinations,
   however trifling ..  [it is] the highest duty .. He who carefully guards
     his wife, preserves (the purity of) his offspring, virtuous conduct,
           his family, himself, and his (means of acquiring) merit. 
 
 
 
 
 
 

No man can completely guard women by force; but they can be guarded
   by the employment of the (following) expedients: Let the (husband) 
   employ his (wife) in the collection and expenditure of his wealth, in 
   keeping (everything) clean, in (the fulfilment of) religious duties, in the 
   preparation of his food, and in looking after the household utensils.
 Women, confined in the house under trustworthy and obedient servants,
   are not (well) guarded; but those who of their own accord keep guard
                            over themselves, are well guarded.
 Drinking (spirituous liquor), associating with wicked people, separation
   from the husband, rambling abroad, sleeping (at unseasonable hours),
                      and dwelling in other men's houses, are the 
                               six causes of the ruin of women.
     Women do not care for beauty, nor is their attention fixed on age;
 (thinking), '(It  is enough that) he is a man,' they give themselves to the
                                       handsome and he ugly.
 Through their passion for men, through their mutable temper, through
   their natural heartlessness, they become disloyal towards their 
 husbands ..  Knowing their disposition, which the Lord of creatures laid
 in them .. (every) man should most strenuously exert himself to guard
 them. 

  (When creating them) Manu allotted to women (a love of their) bed,
  (of their) seat and (of) ornament, impure desires, wrath, dishonesty,
                                  malice, and bad conduct

   thus the law is settled; women (who are) destitute of strength and 
  destitute of (the knowledge of) Vedic texts, (are as impure as) falsehood
                                     (itself), that is a fixed rule.
  And to this effect many sacred texts are sung also in the Vedas, in order
       to (make) fully known the true disposition (of women); hear
      ( now those) texts which refer to) the expiation of their (sins).
   'If my mother, going astray and unfaithful, conceived illicit desires,
                         may my father keep that seed from me
    If a woman thinks in her heart of anything that would pain her husband
              the (above-mentioned text) is declared (to be a means for)
                                           removing such  infidelity.

22. Whatever be the qualities of the man with whom a woman is united 
  according to the law, such qualities even she assumes, like a river (united)
  with the ocean
23. Akshamala, a woman of the lowest birth, being united to Vasishtha and 
  Sarangi, (being united) to Mandapala, became worthy of honour.
24. These and other females of low birth have attained eminence in this world by
  the respective good qualities of their husbands.
25. Thus has been declared the ever pure popular usage (which regulates the 
  relations) between husband and wife; hear (next) the laws concerning children
  which are the cause of happiness in this world and after death.
26. Between wives (striyah) who (are destined) to bear children, who secure 
  many blessings, who are worthy of worship and irradiate (their) dwellings, and 
  between the goddesses of fortune (sriyah, who reside) in the houses (of men),
  there is no difference whatsoever.
27. The production of children, the nurture of those born, and the daily life of 
  men, (of these matters) woman is visibly the cause.
28. Offspring, (the due performance on religious rites, faithful service, highest
  conjugal happiness and heavenly bliss for the ancestors and oneself, depend
  on one's wife alone.
29. She who, controlling her thoughts, speech, and acts, violates not her duty
  towards her lord, dwells with him (after death) in heaven, and in this world is
  called by the virtuous a faithful (wife, sadhvi)
30. But for disloyalty to her husband a wife is censured among men, and
  (in her next life) she is born in the womb of a jackal and tormented by
  diseases, the punishment of her sin.
31. Listen (now) to the following holy discussion, salutary to all men, which the
  virtuous (of the present day) and the ancient great sages have held concerning
  male offspring.
32. They (all) say that the male issue (of a woman) belongs to the lord, but with
  respect to the (meaning of the term) lord the revealed texts differ; some call the
  begetter (of the child the lord), others declare (that it is) the owner of the soil.
33. By the sacred tradition the woman is declared to be the soil, the man is 
  declared to be the seed; the production of all corporeal beings (takes place)
  through the union of the soil with the seed.
34. In some cases the seed is more distinguished, and in some the womb of the
  female; but when both are equal, the offspring is most highly esteemed.
35. On comparing the seed and the receptacle (of the seed), the seed is
  declared to be more important; for the offspring of all created beings is
  marked by the characteristics of the seed.
36. Whatever (kind on seed is sown in a field, prepared in due season, (a plant)
  of that same kind, marked with the peculiar qualities of the seed, springs up in 
   it.
           females of low birth have attained eminence in this world by
                      the respective good qualities of their husbands.
 
 
 
 
 
 

 The production of children, the nurture of those born, and the daily life 
           of men, (of these matters) woman is visibly the cause.
  Offspring, (the due performance on religious rites, faithful service, 
   highest conjugal happiness and heavenly bliss for the ancestors and 
                  oneself, depend on one's wife alone.
 She who, controlling her thoughts, speech, and acts, violates not her duty
  towards her lord, dwells with him (after death) in heaven, and in this 
               world called by the virtuous a faithful (wife, sadhvi)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

37. This earth, indeed, is called the primeval womb of created beings; but the 
  seed develops not in its development any properties of the womb.
38. In this world seeds of different kinds, sown at the proper time in the land, 
  even in one field, come forth (each) according to its kind.
39. The rice (called) vrihi and (that called) sali, mudga-beans, sesamum, masha- 
  beans, barley, leeks, and sugar-cane, (all) spring up according to their seed.
40. That one (plant) should be sown and another be produced cannot happen; 
  whatever seed is sown, (a plant of) that kind even comes forth.
41. Never therefore must a prudent well-trained man, who knows the Veda 
  and its Angas and desires long life, cohabit with another's wife.
42. With respect to this (matter), those acquainted with the past recite some 
  stanzas, sung by Vayu (the Wind, to show) that seed must not be sown by 
  (any) man on that which belongs to another.
43. As the arrow, shot by (a hunter) who afterwards hits a wounded (deer) in 
  the wound (made by another), is shot in vain, even so the seed, sown on
  what belongs to another, is quickly lost (to the sower).
44. (Sages) who know the past call this earth (prithivi) even the wife of Prithu;
  they declare a field to belong to him who cleared away the timber, and a deer
  to him who (first) wounded it.
45. He only is a perfect man who consists (of three persons united), his wife, 
  himself, and his offspring; thus (says the Veda), and (learned) Brahmanas
  propound this (maxim)  likewise, 'The husband is declared to be one with 
 the wife.'
46. Neither by sale nor by repudiation is a wife released from her husband; 
  such we know the law to be, which the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) made 
  of old.
47. Once is the partition (of the inheritance) made, (once is) a maiden given in
  marriage, (and) once does (a man) say,' I will give;' each of those three
  (acts is done) once only.
48. As with cows, mares, female camels, slave-girls, buffalo-cows, she-goats,
  and ewes, it is not the begetter (or his owner) who obtains the offspring,
  even thus (it is) with  the wives of others.
49. Those who, having no property in a field, but possessing seed-corn, sow it in
  another's soil, do indeed not receive the grain of the crop which may spring up.
50. If (one man's) bull were to beget a hundred calves on another man's cows,
  they would belong to the owner of the cows; in vain would the bull have spent 
  his strength.
51. Thus men who have no marital property in women, but sow their seed in the
  soil of others, benefit the owner of the woman; but the giver of the seed reaps 
  no advantage.
52. If no agreement with respect to the crop has been made between the owner 
  of the field and the owner of the seed, the benefit clearly belongs to the owner 
  of the field; the receptacle is more important than the seed.
53. But if by a special contract (a field) is made over (to another) for sowing,
  then the owner of the seed and the owner of the soil are both considered in this 
  world as sharers of the (crop).
 54. If seed be carried by water or wind into somebody's field and germinates 
  (there), the (plant sprung from that) seed belongs even to the owner of the field,
  the owner of the seed does not receive the crop.
55. Know that such is the law concerning the offspring of cows, mares, 
  slave-girls, female camels, she-goats, and ewes, as well as of females of birds
  and buffalo-cows.
56. Thus the comparative importance of the seed and of the womb has been 
  declared to  you; I will next propound the law (applicable) to women in times
  of misfortune.
57. The wife of an elder brother is for his younger (brother) the wife of a Guru;
  but the wife of the younger is declared (to be) the daughter-in-law of the elder.
58. An elder (brother) who approaches the wife of the younger, and a younger
  (brother who approaches) the wife of the elder, except in times of misfortune,
  both become outcasts, even though (they were duly) authorised.
59. On failure of issue (by her husband) a woman who has been authorised, may
  obtain, (in the) proper (manner prescribed), the desired offspring by
  (cohabitation with) a brother-in-law or (with some other) Sapinda (of the
  husband).
60. He (who is) appointed to (cohabit with) the widow shall (approach her) at
  night anointed with clarified butter and silent, (and) beget one son, by no means
  a second.
61. Some (sages), versed in the law, considering the purpose of the appointment
  not to have been attained by those two (on the birth of the first), think that a 
  second (son) may be lawfully procreated on (such) women.
62. But when the purpose of the appointment to (cohabit with) the widow has
  been attained in accordance with the law, those two shall behave towards each 
  other like a  father and a daughter-in-law.
63. If those two (being thus) appointed deviate from the rule and act from carnal
  desire, they will both become outcasts, (as men) who defile the bed of a 
  daughter-in-law or of a Guru.
64. By twice-born men a widow must not be appointed to (cohabit with) any
  other (than her husband); for they who appoint (her) to another (man), will
  violate the eternal law.
65. In the sacred texts which refer to marriage the appointment (of widows) is 
  nowhere mentioned, nor is the re-marriage of widows prescribed in the rules
  concerning marriage.
66. This practice which is reprehended by the learned of the twice-born castes
  as fit for cattle is said (to have occurred) even among men, while Vena ruled.
67. That chief of royal sages who formerly possessed the whole world, caused
  a confusion of the castes (varna), his intellect being destroyed by lust.
68. Since that (time) the virtuous censure that (man) who in his folly appoints a
  woman, whose husband died, to (bear) children (to another man).
69. If the (future) husband of a maiden dies after troth verbally plighted, her
  brother-in-law shall wed her according to the following rule.
70. Having, according to the rule, espoused her (who must be) clad in white
  garments and be intent on purity, he shall approach her once in each proper 
  season until issue (be had).

  Never therefore must a prudent well-trained man, who knows the Veda 
         and its Angas and desires long life, cohabit with another's wife.

 .. seed must not be sown by (any) man on that which belongs to another.
 
 
 
 
 
 

       He only is a perfect man who consists (of three persons united), 
                       his wife, himself, and his offspring
 

   Neither by sale nor by repudiation is a wife released from her husband
 
 
 
 
 

               it is not the begetter .. who obtains the offspring,
                       even thus (it is) with  the wives of others...
 
 
 
 

  Thus men who have no marital property in women, but sow their seed
                in the soil of others, benefit the owner of the woman
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

  On failure of issue (by her husband) a woman who has been authorised,
 may obtain, (in the) proper (manner prescribed), the desired offspring by
 (cohabitation with) a brother-in-law or (with some other) Sapinda (of the
   husband) ...

                                     to .. beget one son ..

                    Some sages .. think that a  second (son) may
                       be lawfully procreated on (such) women...
 

                                 those two shall behave towards each 
                      other like a  father and a daughter-in-law.
                If those two (being thus) appointed deviate from the rule
               and act from carnal desire, they will both become outcasts
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

71. Let no prudent man, after giving his daughter to one (man), give her again to
  another; for he who gives (his daughter) whom he had before given, incurs
  (the guilt of) speaking falsely regarding a human being.
72. Though (a man) may have accepted a damsel in due form, he may abandon
  (her if she be) blemished, diseased, or deflowered, and (if she have been)
  given with fraud. 
73. If anybody gives away a maiden possessing blemishes without declaring 
  them, (the bridegroom) may annul that (contract) with the evil-minded giver.
74. A man who has business (abroad) may depart after securing a maintenance
  for his wife; for a wife, even though virtuous, may be corrupted if she be
  distressed by want of subsistence.
75. If (the husband) went on a journey after providing (for her), the wife shall
  subject herself to restraints in her daily life; but if he departed without providing
  (for her), she may subsist by blameless manual work.
76. If the husband went abroad for some sacred duty, (she) must wait for him
  eight years, if (he went) to (acquire) learning or fame six (years), if (he went)
  for pleasure three years.
77. For one year let a husband bear with a wife who hates him; but after (the
  lapse of) a year let him deprive her of her property and cease to cohabit with
  her.
78. She who shows disrespect to (a husband) who is addicted to (some evil) 
  passion, is a drunkard, or diseased, shall be deserted for three months (and be)
  deprived of her ornaments and furniture.
79. But she who shows aversion towards a mad or outcast (husband), a eunuch,
  one destitute of manly strength, or one afflicted with such diseases as punish 
  crimes, shall neither be cast off nor be deprived of her property.
80. She who drinks spirituous liquor, is of bad conduct, rebellious, diseased,
  mischievous, or wasteful, may at any time be superseded (by another wife).
81. A barren wife may be superseded in the eighth year, she whose children 
  (all) die in the tenth, she who bears only daughters in the eleventh, but she 
  who is quarrelsome without delay.
82. But a sick wife who is kind (to her husband) and virtuous in her conduct,
  may be superseded (only) with her own consent and must never be disgraced.
83. A wife who, being superseded, in anger departs from (her husband's) house, 
  must either be instantly confined or cast off in the presence of the family.
84. But she who, though having been forbidden, drinks spirituous liquor even at
  festivals, or goes to public spectacles or assemblies, shall be fined six  krishnalas.
85. If twice-born men wed women of their own and of other (lower castes), the
  seniority, honour, and habitation of those (wives) must be (settled) according to
  the order of the castes (varna).

 

   Though (a man) may have accepted a damsel in due form, he may 
    abandon (her if she be) blemished, diseased, or deflowered, and 
                          (if she have been) given with fraud. 
 

     A man who has business (abroad) may depart after securing a 
     maintenance for his wife; for a wife, even though virtuous, may 
        be corrupted if she be distressed by want of subsistence.
 
 
 
 
 

        For one year let a husband bear with a wife who hates him; 
                but after (the lapse of) a year let him deprive her 
                   of her property and cease to cohabit with her.
      She who shows disrespect to (a husband) who is addicted to
        (some evil) passion, is a drunkard, or diseased, shall be 
         deserted (and be) deprived of her ornaments and furniture.
 But she who shows aversion towards a mad or outcast (husband),
 a eunuch, one destitute of manly strength, or one afflicted with such 
 diseases as punish crimes, shall neither be cast off nor be deprived
 of her property. She who drinks spirituous liquor, is of bad conduct,
 rebellious, diseased, mischievous, or wasteful, may at any time be
 superseded (by another wife). A barren wife may be superseded in the
 eighth year, she whose children (all) die in the tenth, she who bears only
 daughters in the eleventh, but she who is quarrelsome without delay.
 But a sick wife who is kind (to her husband) and virtuous in her conduct,
 may be superseded (only) with her own consent and must never be
 disgraced. . A wife who, being superseded, in anger departs from (her
 husband's ) house must either be instantly confined or cast off in the
 the presence of the family. But she who, though having been forbidden,
 drinks spirituous liquor even at festivals, or goes to public spectacles 
                            or assemblies, shall be fined
 

 

86. Among all (twice-born men) the wife of equal caste alone, not a wife of a
  different caste by any means, shall personally attend her husband and assist
  him in his daily sacred rites.
87. But he who foolishly causes that (duty) to be performed by another, while
  his wife of equal caste is alive, is declared by the ancients (to be) as
  (despicable) as a Kandala (sprung from the) Brahmana (caste).
88. To a distinguished, handsome suitor (of) equal (caste) should (a father)
  give his daughter in accordance with the prescribed rule, though she have
  not attained (the proper age).
89. (But) the maiden, though marriageable, should rather stop in (the father's)
  house until death, than that he should ever give her to a man destitute of 
  good qualities.
90. Three years let a damsel wait, though she be marriageable; but after that
  time let her choose for herself a bridegroom (of) equal (caste and rank).
91. If, being not given in marriage, she herself seeks a husband, she incurs no
  guilt, nor (does) he whom she weds.
92. A maiden who choses for herself, shall not take with her any ornaments, 
  given by her father or her mother, or her brothers; if she carries them away,
  it will be theft.
93. But he who takes (to wife) a marriageable damsel, shall not pay any
  nuptial fee to her father; for the (latter) will lose his dominion over her in
  consequence of his preventing (the legitimate result of the appearance of)
  her enemies.
94. A man, aged thirty years, shall marry a maiden of twelve who pleases him, 
  or a man of twenty-four a girl eight years of age; if (the performance of) his 
  duties would (otherwise) be impeded, (he must marry) sooner.
95. The husband receives his wife from the gods, (he does not wed her)
  according to his own will; doing what is agreeable to the gods,
  he must always support her (while she is) faithful. 
96. To be mothers were women created, and to be fathers men; religious rites, 
  therefore, are ordained in the Veda to be performed (by the husband)
  together with the wife.
97. If, after the nuptial fee has been paid for a maiden, the giver of the fee dies,
  she shall be given in marriage to his brother, in case she consents.
98. Even a Sudra ought not to take a nuptial fee, when he gives away his
  daughter; for he who takes a fee sell his daughter, covering (the transaction
  by another name).
99. Neither ancients nor moderns who were good men have done such (a deed) 
  that, after promising (a daughter) to one man, they have her to another;
100. Nor, indeed, have we heard, even in former creations, of such (a thing as)
  the covert sale of a daughter for a fixed price, called a nuptial fee.
101. 'Let mutual fidelity continue until death,' this may be considered as the
  summary of the highest law for husband and wife.
102. Let man and woman, united in marriage, constantly exert themselves, that 
  (they may not be) disunited (and) may not violate their mutual fidelity.
103. Thus has been declared to you the law for a husband and his wife, which is
  intimately connected with conjugal happiness, and the manner of raising 
  offspring in times of calamity; learn (now the law concerning) the division of the
  inheritance.
104. After the death of the father and of the mother, the brothers, being
  assembled, may divide among themselves in equal shares the paternal (and the
  maternal) estate; for, they have no power (over it) while the parents live.
105. (Or) the eldest alone may take the whole paternal estate, the others shall 
  live under him just as (they lived) under their father.
106. Immediately on the birth of his first-born a man is (called) the father of a 
  son and is freed from the debt to the manes; that (son), therefore, is worthy
  (to receive) the whole estate.
107. That son alone on whom he throws his debt and through whom he obtains 
  immortality, is begotten for (the fulfilment of) the law; all the rest they consider 
  the offspring of desire.
108. As a father (supports) his sons, so let the eldest support his younger
  brothers, and let them also in accordance with the law behave towards their 
  eldest brother as sons (behave towards their father).
109. The eldest (son) makes the family prosperous or, on the contrary, brings it 
  to ruin; the eldest (is considered) among men most worthy of honour, the eldest
  is not treated with disrespect by the virtuous.
110. If the eldest brother behaves as an eldest brother (ought to do), he (must be
  treated) like a mother and like a father; but if he behaves in a manner unworthy 
  of an eldest brother, he should yet be honoured like a kinsman.
111. Either let them thus live together, or apart, if (each) desires (to gain)
  spiritual merit; for (by their living) separate (their) merit increases, hence 
  separation is meritorious.
112. The additional share (deducted) for the eldest shall be one-twentieth 
  (of the estate) and the best of all chattels, for the middlemost half of that,
  but for the youngest one-fourth.
113. Both the eldest and the youngest shall take (their shares) according to
  (the rule just) stated (each of) those who are between the eldest and the
  youngest, shall have the share (prescribed for the) middlemost.
114. Among the goods of every kind the eldest shall take the best (article), 
  and (even a single chattel) which is particularly good, as well as the best of 
  ten (animals).
115. But among (brothers) equally skilled in their occupations, there is no
  additional share, (consisting of the best animal) among ten; some trifle only 
  shall be given to the eldest as a token of respect.
116. If additional shares are thus deducted, one must allot equal shares (out of 
  the residue to each); but if no deduction is made, the allotment of the shares
  among them shall be (made) in the following manner.
117. Let the eldest son take one share in excess, the (brother) born next after
  him one (share) and a half, the younger ones one share each; thus the law is
  settled.
118. But to the maiden (sisters) the brothers shall severally give (portions) out 
  of their shares, each out of his share one-fourth part; those who refuse to give
  (it), will become outcasts.

 
 
 
 

 To a distinguished, handsome suitor (of) equal (caste) should (a father)
  give his daughter in accordance with the prescribed rule, though she 
                          have not attained (the proper age).
       (But) the maiden, though marriageable, should rather stop in
              (the father's) house until death, than that he should
               ever give her to a man destitute of good qualities.
 

        If, being not given in marriage, she herself seeks a husband,
               she incurs no guilt ..
        A maiden who choses for herself, shall not take with her any
               given by her father or her mother, or her brothers;
                         if she carries them away, it will be theft.
 
 
 

        A man, aged thirty years, shall marry a maiden of twelve who 
         pleases him, or a man of twenty-four a girl eight years of age

   The husband receives his wife from the gods, (he does not wed her) 
       according to his own will; doing what is agreeable to the gods, 
                he must always support her (while she is) faithful.
      To be mothers were women created, and to be fathers men
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

  'Let mutual fidelity continue until death' this may be considered as the
                   summary of the highest law for husband and wife.
 
 
 

    learn (now the law concerning) the division of the inheritance ..

  the brothers, being assembled, may divide among themselves in equal
  shares ..

 (Or) the eldest alone may take the whole paternal estate, the others 
      shall live under him just as (they lived) under their father.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

   to the maiden (sisters) the brothers shall severally give (portions) out
       of their shares, each out of his share one-fourth part; those who
                         refuse to give (it), will become outcasts.

127. He who has no son may make his daughter in the following manner an 
  appointed daughter (putrika, saying to her husband), 'The (male) child, 
  born of her, shall perform my funeral rites.'
128. According to this rule Daksha, himself, lord of created beings, formerly 
  made (all his female offspring) appointed daughters in order to multiply his race.
129. He gave ten to Dharma, thirteen to Kasyapa, twenty-seven to King Soma, 
  honouring (them) with an affectionate heart.
130. A son is even (as) oneself, (such) a daughter is equal to a son; how can
  another (heir) take the estate, while such (an appointed daughter who is even)
  oneself, lives?
131. But whatever may be the separate property of the mother, that is the share 
  of the unmarried daughter alone; and the son of an (appointed) daughter shall 
  take the whole estate of (his maternal grandfather) who leaves no son.
132. The son of an (appointed) daughter, indeed, shall (also) take the estate of 
  his (own) father, who leaves no (other) son; he shall (then) present two funeral
  cakes to his own father and to his maternal grandfather.
133. Between a son's son and the son of an (appointed) daughter there is no
  difference, neither with respect to worldly matters nor to sacred duties; for
  their father and mother both sprang from the body of the same (man).
134. But if, after a daughter has been appointed, a son be born (to her father),
  the division (of the inheritance) must in that (case) be equal; for there is no right
  of primogeniture for a woman.
135. But if an appointed daughter by accident dies without (leaving) a son,
  the husband of the appointed daughter may, without hesitation, take that estate.
136. Through that son whom (a daughter), either not appointed or appointed,
  may bear to (a husband) of equal (caste), his maternal grandfather (has) a
  son's son; he shall present the funeral cake and take the estate.
137. Through a son he conquers the worlds, through a son's son he obtains
  immortality, but through his son's grandson he gains the world of the sun.
138. Because a son delivers (trayate) his father from the hell called Put, he was
  therefore called put-tra (a deliverer from Put) by the Self-existent
  (Svayambhu) himself.
139. Between a son's son and the son of a daughter there exists in this world
  no difference; for even the son of a daughter saves him (who has no sons) in
  the next world, like the son's son.
140. Let the son of an appointed daughter first present a funeral cake to his
  mother, the second to her father, the funeral to his father's father.
141. Of the man who has an adopted (Datrima) son possessing all good
  qualities, that same (son) shall take the inheritance, though brought from 
  another family.
142. An adopted son shall never take the family (name) and the estate of his
  natural father; the funeral cake follows the family (name) and the estate, the
  funeral offerings of him who gives (his son in adoption) cease (as far as that 
  son is concerned).
143. The son of a wife, not appointed (to have issue by another), and he whom 
  (an appointed female, already) the mother of a son, bears to her
  brother-in-law, are both unworthy of a share, (one being) the son of an
  adulterer and (the other) produced through (mere) lust.
144. Even the male (child) of a female (duly) appointed, not begotten according 
  to the rule (given above), is unworthy of the paternal estate; for he was 
  procreated by an outcast.
145. A son (legally) begotten on such an appointed female shall inherit like a
  legitimate son of the body; for that seed and the produce belong, according to
  the law, to the owner of the soil.
146. He who takes care of his deceased brother's estate and of his widow, 
  shall, after raising up a son for his brother, give that property even to that (son).
147. If a woman (duly) appointed bears a son to her brother-in-law or to 
  another (Sapinda), that (son, if he is) begotten through desire, they declare 
  (to be) incapable of inheriting and to be produced in vain.
148. The rules (given above) must be understood (to apply) to a distribution
  among sons of women of the same (caste); ..

232. Forgers of royal edicts, those who corrupt his ministers, those who slay
  women, infants, or Brahmanas, and those who serve his enemies, the king shall
  put to death
 

Chapter X

62. Dying, without the expectation of a reward, for the sake of Brahmanas and
  of cows, or in the defence of women and children, secures beatitude to those 
  excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya.)


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

                     There is no right of primogenture for a woman
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

                 those who slay women, infants, or Brahmanas, .. 
                                  the king shall put to death
 
 
 
 

  Dying, without the expectation of a reward .. in the defence of women 
   and children, secures beatitude to those excluded (from the Aryan 
                                      community, vahya.)


Source: (excerpted from)

Indian History Sourcebook:
The Laws of Manu, c. 1500 BCE 
translated by G. Buhler

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